Stratos 714 Design


The Stratos 714 will cruise at Mach 0.7, yet have approach speeds comparable to piston singles. The key to achieving these competing demands is the Stratos 714’s unique airfoil and wing design.

The aerodynamics of the Stratos 714 is being developed using modern Computations Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software along with empirical processes. Developing an aircraft capable of flying at 400 knots but with excellent handling qualities at 80 knots was a tough challenge. We’re sure you’ll be happy with the results.


Stratos 714 Design


The Stratos 714 will cruise at Mach 0.7, yet have approach speeds comparable to piston singles. The key to achieving these competing demands is the Stratos 714’s unique airfoil and wing design.

The aerodynamics of the Stratos 714 is being developed using modern Computations Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software along with empirical processes. Developing an aircraft capable of flying at 400 knots but with excellent handling qualities at 80 knots was a tough challenge. We’re sure you’ll be happy with the results.


Stratos 714 Design


The Stratos 714 will cruise at Mach 0.7, yet have approach speeds comparable to piston singles. The key to achieving these competing demands is the Stratos 714’s unique airfoil and wing design.

The aerodynamics of the Stratos 714 is being developed using modern Computations Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software along with empirical processes. Developing an aircraft capable of flying at 400 knots but with excellent handling qualities at 80 knots was a tough challenge. We’re sure you’ll be happy with the results.

 

Stratos 714 Airframe


The majority of the Stratos 714 airframe incorporates state of the art carbon fiber composites.

While development costs for early composite aircraft were high, the industry has refined this technology over the last two decades to such an extent that manufacturers can now incorporate composites in their airframe designs at reasonable cost. Composites offer a variety of advantages over aluminum construction, including:

• The strength-to-weight ratio benefits of advanced composite materials translates to weight savings.

• Composite airframes do not corrode.

• Composites support design shapes with compound curvature resulting in optimization and less drag.

Stratos 714 Airframe


The majority of the Stratos 714 airframe incorporates state of the art carbon fiber composites.

While development costs for early composite aircraft were high, the industry has refined this technology over the last two decades to such an extent that manufacturers can now incorporate composites in their airframe designs at reasonable cost. Composites offer a variety of advantages over aluminum construction, including:

• The strength-to-weight ratio benefits of advanced composite materials translates to weight savings.

• Composite airframes do not corrode.

• Composites support design shapes with compound curvature resulting in optimization and less drag.

Stratos 714 Airframe


The majority of the Stratos 714 airframe incorporates state of the art carbon fiber composites.

While development costs for early composite aircraft were high, the industry has refined this technology over the last two decades to such an extent that manufacturers can now incorporate composites in their airframe designs at reasonable cost. Composites offer a variety of advantages over aluminum construction, including:

• The strength-to-weight ratio benefits of advanced composite materials translates to weight savings.

• Composite airframes do not corrode.

• Composites support design shapes with compound curvature resulting in optimization and less drag.


Stratos 714 Engine


The Stratos Proof of Concept is powered by the highly efficient Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-5:

• EEC (Electronic Engine Control) system with hydromechanical back-up: ease of pilot workload.

• Efficiency: single engine turbine reduces operating cost significantly.

• Reliability: more than 6,600 engines produced having accumulated more than 41 million hours of flight time.

• Confidence: supported by P&WC’s industry-leading global customer support.

• For the certified aircraft, the P&WC PW535E will be used.


Stratos 714 Engine


The Stratos Proof of Concept is powered by the highly efficient Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-5:

• EEC (Electronic Engine Control) system with hydromechanical back-up: ease of pilot workload.

• Efficiency: single engine turbine reduces operating cost significantly.

• Reliability: more than 6,600 engines produced having accumulated more than 41 million hours of flight time.

• Confidence: supported by P&WC’s industry-leading global customer support.

• For the certified aircraft, the P&WC PW535E will be used.

Stratos 714 Engine


The Stratos Proof of Concept is powered by the highly efficient Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-5:

• EEC (Electronic Engine Control) system with hydromechanical back-up: ease of pilot workload.

• Efficiency: single engine turbine reduces operating cost significantly.

• Reliability: more than 6,600 engines produced having accumulated more than 41 million hours of flight time.

• Confidence: supported by P&WC’s industry-leading global customer support.

• For the certified aircraft, the P&WC PW535E will be used.

 

Stratos 714 Landing Gear


Trailing-link landing gear: favored by pilots for their forgiving characteristics and smooth ground handling.

 

Stratos 714 Landing Gear


Trailing-link landing gear: favored by pilots for their forgiving characteristics and smooth ground handling.

Stratos 714 Landing Gear


Trailing-link landing gear: favored by pilots for their forgiving characteristics and smooth ground handling.

Why Single Engine?


An obvious question is “why single engine versus twin engine?” The primary reasons are increased safety (see below), lower costs (acquisition and operating) and simplicity for the operator. As a result of the proven reliability of modern turbine engines, single engine aircraft are widely accepted today.

General aviation accident statistics are consistent in showing flying to be safer in single engine than in twin engine aircraft. Further, the statistics show that occupants are more likely to survive an engine failure (which situation is twice as likely in a twin) if it is the only engine. Convinced by these safety statistics, the FAA, has allowed single engine commercial IFR flights since 1995. The evidence accumulated since then shows that single engine turbines are the safest of all general aviation aircraft types.
The cost savings of designing around one rather than two engines are well established. In fighter aircraft it is acknowledged that a single engine aircraft like the F16 or Gripen provides almost the functionality of a twin engine aircraft such as the F15 or Eurofighter Typhoon at around half the cost.

The compelling economics of single engine aircraft is illuminated by comparison with a “Twin engine Stratos”. If such an aircraft were designed to match the Stratos 714´s capabilities, it would have a 5% greater gross weight, and require two engines of combined static thrust 5% greater than the single engine of the Stratos 714. These engines would likely have a 14% greater combined weight and have specific fuel consumption (lbs of thrust per lb/hour of fuel) 4% higher than the Stratos 714´s single engine. On typical missions, the twin engine aircraft would burn around 10% more fuel than the Stratos 714.

A twin engine version of the Stratos would be significantly more costly than for the equivalent single engine version. This is from the added cost of two smaller engines and the associated systems. Furthermore, maintenance costs on two smaller engines versus one larger engine would be significantly greater.

The Stratos 714 was designed with the owner-operator in mind. As such, the design evolved around designing an aircraft that can be safely operated by the typical owner operator of today´s high performance aircraft. Given the reliability of the modern turbofan engine, the choice for single engine was obvious.

Why Single Engine?


An obvious question is “why single engine versus twin engine?” The primary reasons are increased safety (see below), lower costs (acquisition and operating) and simplicity for the operator. As a result of the proven reliability of modern turbine engines, single engine aircraft are widely accepted today.

General aviation accident statistics are consistent in showing flying to be safer in single engine than in twin engine aircraft. Further, the statistics show that occupants are more likely to survive an engine failure (which situation is twice as likely in a twin) if it is the only engine. Convinced by these safety statistics, the FAA, has allowed single engine commercial IFR flights since 1995. The evidence accumulated since then shows that single engine turbines are the safest of all general aviation aircraft types.
The cost savings of designing around one rather than two engines are well established. In fighter aircraft it is acknowledged that a single engine aircraft like the F16 or Gripen provides almost the functionality of a twin engine aircraft such as the F15 or Eurofighter Typhoon at around half the cost.

The compelling economics of single engine aircraft is illuminated by comparison with a “Twin engine Stratos”. If such an aircraft were designed to match the Stratos 714´s capabilities, it would have a 5% greater gross weight, and require two engines of combined static thrust 5% greater than the single engine of the Stratos 714. These engines would likely have a 14% greater combined weight and have specific fuel consumption (lbs of thrust per lb/hour of fuel) 4% higher than the Stratos 714´s single engine. On typical missions, the twin engine aircraft would burn around 10% more fuel than the Stratos 714.

A twin engine version of the Stratos would be significantly more costly than for the equivalent single engine version. This is from the added cost of two smaller engines and the associated systems. Furthermore, maintenance costs on two smaller engines versus one larger engine would be significantly greater.

The Stratos 714 was designed with the owner-operator in mind. As such, the design evolved around designing an aircraft that can be safely operated by the typical owner operator of today´s high performance aircraft. Given the reliability of the modern turbofan engine, the choice for single engine was obvious.

Why Single Engine?


An obvious question is “why single engine versus twin engine?” The primary reasons are increased safety (see below), lower costs (acquisition and operating) and simplicity for the operator. As a result of the proven reliability of modern turbine engines, single engine aircraft are widely accepted today.

General aviation accident statistics are consistent in showing flying to be safer in single engine than in twin engine aircraft. Further, the statistics show that occupants are more likely to survive an engine failure (which situation is twice as likely in a twin) if it is the only engine. Convinced by these safety statistics, the FAA, has allowed single engine commercial IFR flights since 1995. The evidence accumulated since then shows that single engine turbines are the safest of all general aviation aircraft types.
The cost savings of designing around one rather than two engines are well established. In fighter aircraft it is acknowledged that a single engine aircraft like the F16 or Gripen provides almost the functionality of a twin engine aircraft such as the F15 or Eurofighter Typhoon at around half the cost.

The compelling economics of single engine aircraft is illuminated by comparison with a “Twin engine Stratos”. If such an aircraft were designed to match the Stratos 714´s capabilities, it would have a 5% greater gross weight, and require two engines of combined static thrust 5% greater than the single engine of the Stratos 714. These engines would likely have a 14% greater combined weight and have specific fuel consumption (lbs of thrust per lb/hour of fuel) 4% higher than the Stratos 714´s single engine. On typical missions, the twin engine aircraft would burn around 10% more fuel than the Stratos 714.

A twin engine version of the Stratos would be significantly more costly than for the equivalent single engine version. This is from the added cost of two smaller engines and the associated systems. Furthermore, maintenance costs on two smaller engines versus one larger engine would be significantly greater.

The Stratos 714 was designed with the owner-operator in mind. As such, the design evolved around designing an aircraft that can be safely operated by the typical owner operator of today´s high performance aircraft. Given the reliability of the modern turbofan engine, the choice for single engine was obvious.

The Stratos Configuration advantage


A single engine jet has many advantages over a twin engine jet. However it poses the question of the optimum location for engine placement.

The general aircraft layout including engine placement is referred to as “configuration”. Early in the program, considerable time was spent studying various configurations prior to settling on bifurcated inlets with the engine mounted centrally in the fuselage. This was primarily the result of three considerations:

The thrust acting close to the center of gravity minimizes pitch changes with power and the consequential effects on adverse handling qualities and certification requirements. This engine location design element avoids the requirement to develop an automatic trim system to deal with the issues of power-pitch coupling.
A second requirement established was to design a long tail arm. A tail arm in simple terms is the distance between the aircraft center of gravity (cg) and the horizontal tail (see graphic left). Locating the engine centrally and forward gives a longer tail arm than aircraft with aft mounted engines. A long tail arm reduces the required tail size and provides good short period damping. The negative tail lift coefficient at the stall is also lower than aircraft with shorter tail arms, reducing the trim decrement between the wing maximum lift coefficient and the aircraft maximum lift coefficient.
The position of the engine puts the payload and fuel close to the CG, thereby minimizing CG shift with varying payload and fuel quantity.

Maintenance


The Stratos 714 is designed with maintenance in mind. A maintenance management system will be integrated within the avionics suite to track and alert for required maintenance.

All areas that require periodic inspections and/or maintenance are easily accessible. The instrument panel is hinged for comfortable access by technicians. Access panels are large enough to comfortably perform the work. Systems are installed on trays and as much as possible are modular.

The Stratos Configuration advantage


A single engine jet has many advantages over a twin engine jet. However it poses the question of the optimum location for engine placement.

The general aircraft layout including engine placement is referred to as “configuration”. Early in the program, considerable time was spent studying various configurations prior to settling on bifurcated inlets with the engine mounted centrally in the fuselage. This was primarily the result of three considerations:

The thrust acting close to the center of gravity minimizes pitch changes with power and the consequential effects on adverse handling qualities and certification requirements. This engine location design element avoids the requirement to develop an automatic trim system to deal with the issues of power-pitch coupling.
A second requirement established was to design a long tail arm. A tail arm in simple terms is the distance between the aircraft center of gravity (cg) and the horizontal tail (see graphic left). Locating the engine centrally and forward gives a longer tail arm than aircraft with aft mounted engines. A long tail arm reduces the required tail size and provides good short period damping. The negative tail lift coefficient at the stall is also lower than aircraft with shorter tail arms, reducing the trim decrement between the wing maximum lift coefficient and the aircraft maximum lift coefficient.
The position of the engine puts the payload and fuel close to the CG, thereby minimizing CG shift with varying payload and fuel quantity.

Maintenance


The Stratos 714 is designed with maintenance in mind. A maintenance management system will be integrated within the avionics suite to track and alert for required maintenance.

All areas that require periodic inspections and/or maintenance are easily accessible. The instrument panel is hinged for comfortable access by technicians. Access panels are large enough to comfortably perform the work. Systems are installed on trays and as much as possible are modular.

The Stratos Configuration advantage


A single engine jet has many advantages over a twin engine jet. However it poses the question of the optimum location for engine placement.

The general aircraft layout including engine placement is referred to as “configuration”. Early in the program, considerable time was spent studying various configurations prior to settling on bifurcated inlets with the engine mounted centrally in the fuselage. This was primarily the result of three considerations:

The thrust acting close to the center of gravity minimizes pitch changes with power and the consequential effects on adverse handling qualities and certification requirements. This engine location design element avoids the requirement to develop an automatic trim system to deal with the issues of power-pitch coupling.
A second requirement established was to design a long tail arm. A tail arm in simple terms is the distance between the aircraft center of gravity (cg) and the horizontal tail (see graphic left). Locating the engine centrally and forward gives a longer tail arm than aircraft with aft mounted engines. A long tail arm reduces the required tail size and provides good short period damping. The negative tail lift coefficient at the stall is also lower than aircraft with shorter tail arms, reducing the trim decrement between the wing maximum lift coefficient and the aircraft maximum lift coefficient.
The position of the engine puts the payload and fuel close to the CG, thereby minimizing CG shift with varying payload and fuel quantity.

Maintenance


The Stratos 714 is designed with maintenance in mind. A maintenance management system will be integrated within the avionics suite to track and alert for required maintenance.

All areas that require periodic inspections and/or maintenance are easily accessible. The instrument panel is hinged for comfortable access by technicians. Access panels are large enough to comfortably perform the work. Systems are installed on trays and as much as possible are modular.
 

Flying the 714


Flight Characteristics


The flight characteristics of the Stratos 714 are designed for the individual who owns and operates his own aircraft; docile flight characteristics and a low pilot workload are major design drivers. While we anticipate that buyers of the Stratos 714 will include professional pilots, that level of expertise and experience is not required to safely fly the Stratos 714. The key design attributes which support these flight characteristics include the following:

 

Flying the 714


Flight Characteristics


The flight characteristics of the Stratos 714 are designed for the individual who owns and operates his own aircraft; docile flight characteristics and a low pilot workload are major design drivers. While we anticipate that buyers of the Stratos 714 will include professional pilots, that level of expertise and experience is not required to safely fly the Stratos 714. The key design attributes which support these flight characteristics include the following:

Flying the 714


Flight Characteristics


The flight characteristics of the Stratos 714 are designed for the individual who owns and operates his own aircraft; docile flight characteristics and a low pilot workload are major design drivers. While we anticipate that buyers of the Stratos 714 will include professional pilots, that level of expertise and experience is not required to safely fly the Stratos 714. The key design attributes which support these flight characteristics include the following:

Stable and predictable flight characteristics


In choosing the configuration of the Stratos, stability was a major design driver. By installing the engine relatively forward the Stratos has a long tail arm (this is the relative distance between the horizontal tail and wing).

Also the thrust line is close to the center of gravity reducing pitch changes with power changes. This is different than engines mounted far aft, that result in a relatively short tail arm.

 

Stable and predictable flight characteristics


In choosing the configuration of the Stratos, stability was a major design driver. By installing the engine relatively forward the Stratos has a long tail arm (this is the relative distance between the horizontal tail and wing).

Also the thrust line is close to the center of gravity reducing pitch changes with power changes. This is different than engines mounted far aft, that result in a relatively short tail arm.

 

Stable and predictable flight characteristics


In choosing the configuration of the Stratos, stability was a major design driver. By installing the engine relatively forward the Stratos has a long tail arm (this is the relative distance between the horizontal tail and wing).

Also the thrust line is close to the center of gravity reducing pitch changes with power changes. This is different than engines mounted far aft, that result in a relatively short tail arm.

 

Simple engine management


The Stratos 714 is powered by a single PWC JT15D-5. A single engine design versus twin engine reduces power and fuel management workload. Jet engines reduce pilot workload compared to turbo prop or piston.

 

Simple engine management


The Stratos 714 is powered by a single PWC JT15D-5. A single engine design versus twin engine reduces power and fuel management workload. Jet engines reduce pilot workload compared to turbo prop or piston.

Simple engine management


The Stratos 714 is powered by a single PWC JT15D-5. A single engine design versus twin engine reduces power and fuel management workload. Jet engines reduce pilot workload compared to turbo prop or piston.

Simple and automatic systems


By designing simple and/or automatic systems the pilot workload is further reduced. In addition to the required autopilot, automatic environmental controls and other systems will reduce pilot workload. Our guiding philosophy in designing for safety is to prevent the accident in the first place. In 2005, 76% of all general aviation accidents were attributed to pilot error.

An aircraft with excellent flight characteristics and a low pilot workload contributes significantly to accident prevention. Stratos Aircraft will investigate every available option to enhance safety, and will carefully evaluate its usefulness for the Stratos 714. Minimum pilot experience requirements will be similar to that of today’s VLJ’s.

The Stratos 714 is easier to fly than the majority of the high performance general aviation aircraft available today. Stratos Aircraft will work with insurance providers to establish pilot minimums, and will provide extensive initial and recurrent training programs.

 

Simple and automatic systems


By designing simple and/or automatic systems the pilot workload is further reduced. In addition to the required autopilot, automatic environmental controls and other systems will reduce pilot workload. Our guiding philosophy in designing for safety is to prevent the accident in the first place. In 2005, 76% of all general aviation accidents were attributed to pilot error.

An aircraft with excellent flight characteristics and a low pilot workload contributes significantly to accident prevention. Stratos Aircraft will investigate every available option to enhance safety, and will carefully evaluate its usefulness for the Stratos 714. Minimum pilot experience requirements will be similar to that of today’s VLJ’s.

The Stratos 714 is easier to fly than the majority of the high performance general aviation aircraft available today. Stratos Aircraft will work with insurance providers to establish pilot minimums, and will provide extensive initial and recurrent training programs.

 

Simple and automatic systems


By designing simple and/or automatic systems the pilot workload is further reduced. In addition to the required autopilot, automatic environmental controls and other systems will reduce pilot workload. Our guiding philosophy in designing for safety is to prevent the accident in the first place. In 2005, 76% of all general aviation accidents were attributed to pilot error.

An aircraft with excellent flight characteristics and a low pilot workload contributes significantly to accident prevention. Stratos Aircraft will investigate every available option to enhance safety, and will carefully evaluate its usefulness for the Stratos 714. Minimum pilot experience requirements will be similar to that of today’s VLJ’s.

The Stratos 714 is easier to fly than the majority of the high performance general aviation aircraft available today. Stratos Aircraft will work with insurance providers to establish pilot minimums, and will provide extensive initial and recurrent training programs.

 

High Altitude Operations


The Stratos 714 is pressurized and equipped for flight up to 41,000 ft (maximum certificated altitude). The advantages of high altitude operations include improved efficiency, longer range, and being able to fly above most of the weather. However, high altitude flight poses a new set of issues that must be carefully addressed in terms of design and pilot training.

Stratos Aircraft will implement training programs and minimum experience requirements prior to flight to the higher flight levels. The training program will be through one of the major flight training companies (to be announced).

It should be noted that the Stratos performs excellently at the lower flight levels as well. Refer to the cruise performance/range versus altitude chart: at FL 250 with pilot +3 passengers and baggage, the Stratos is capable of speeds in excess of 400 KTAS with a range in excess of 1,000 nm with NBAA reserves.

This allows a pilot to fly in the lower flight levels while gaining experience prior to venturing safely into the higher flight levels. In fact, for shorter trips there is no reason to fly in the higher flight levels.

The structure of the Stratos 714 pressurized cabin is over-designed as an added safety factor. It will be capable of holding higher pressures than that required for certification. The transparencies (windshields and windows) are manufactured by a company that is a primary supplier for the airlines.

The cabin door features 10 heavy-duty pins and a double-seal design further reduces chances of depressurization. All seals and penetrations of the pressurized vessel are designed to minimize the leak rate. Quick don mask for all 4 occupants is standard equipment. Nevertheless, the aircraft is capable of rapid descent by use of speed-brakes in the unlikely event of depressurization.

 

High Altitude Operations


The Stratos 714 is pressurized and equipped for flight up to 41,000 ft (maximum certificated altitude). The advantages of high altitude operations include improved efficiency, longer range, and being able to fly above most of the weather. However, high altitude flight poses a new set of issues that must be carefully addressed in terms of design and pilot training.

Stratos Aircraft will implement training programs and minimum experience requirements prior to flight to the higher flight levels. The training program will be through one of the major flight training companies (to be announced).

It should be noted that the Stratos performs excellently at the lower flight levels as well. Refer to the cruise performance/range versus altitude chart: at FL 250 with pilot +3 passengers and baggage, the Stratos is capable of speeds in excess of 400 KTAS with a range in excess of 1,000 nm with NBAA reserves.

This allows a pilot to fly in the lower flight levels while gaining experience prior to venturing safely into the higher flight levels. In fact, for shorter trips there is no reason to fly in the higher flight levels.

The structure of the Stratos 714 pressurized cabin is over-designed as an added safety factor. It will be capable of holding higher pressures than that required for certification. The transparencies (windshields and windows) are manufactured by a company that is a primary supplier for the airlines.

The cabin door features 10 heavy-duty pins and a double-seal design further reduces chances of depressurization. All seals and penetrations of the pressurized vessel are designed to minimize the leak rate. Quick don mask for all 4 occupants is standard equipment. Nevertheless, the aircraft is capable of rapid descent by use of speed-brakes in the unlikely event of depressurization.

High Altitude Operations


The Stratos 714 is pressurized and equipped for flight up to 41,000 ft (maximum certificated altitude). The advantages of high altitude operations include improved efficiency, longer range, and being able to fly above most of the weather. However, high altitude flight poses a new set of issues that must be carefully addressed in terms of design and pilot training.

Stratos Aircraft will implement training programs and minimum experience requirements prior to flight to the higher flight levels. The training program will be through one of the major flight training companies (to be announced).

It should be noted that the Stratos performs excellently at the lower flight levels as well. Refer to the cruise performance/range versus altitude chart: at FL 250 with pilot +3 passengers and baggage, the Stratos is capable of speeds in excess of 400 KTAS with a range in excess of 1,000 nm with NBAA reserves.

This allows a pilot to fly in the lower flight levels while gaining experience prior to venturing safely into the higher flight levels. In fact, for shorter trips there is no reason to fly in the higher flight levels.

The structure of the Stratos 714 pressurized cabin is over-designed as an added safety factor. It will be capable of holding higher pressures than that required for certification. The transparencies (windshields and windows) are manufactured by a company that is a primary supplier for the airlines.

The cabin door features 10 heavy-duty pins and a double-seal design further reduces chances of depressurization. All seals and penetrations of the pressurized vessel are designed to minimize the leak rate. Quick don mask for all 4 occupants is standard equipment. Nevertheless, the aircraft is capable of rapid descent by use of speed-brakes in the unlikely event of depressurization.

The 714 Cutaway Details


 

The 714 Cutaway Details